CRIMINAL JUSTICE IN JAPAN


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CONTENTS (PDF: 495KB)
CHAPTER 1
STRUCTURE AND ORGANIZATION OF THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE ADMINISTRATION 
(PDF: 967KB)
  I. POLICE
    A. Overview
    B. National Police Organization
      1. The National Public Safety Commission
      2. The National Police Agency
    C. Local Police Organization
      1. The Prefectural Public Safety Commission
      2. Prefectural Police Headquarters
  II. PROSECUTION
    A. Qualification
    B. Organization
    C. Functions and Jurisdiction
    D. Status (Independence and Impartiality)
  III. COURTS
    A. Structure
      1. Introduction
      2. The Supreme Court
      3. The High Court
      4. The District Court
      5. The Family Court
      6. The Summary Court
    B. Judges
      1. Appointment of Judges
      2. Categories and Qualifications of Judges
  IV. CORRECTIONS
    A. Organization of the Correctional Administration
      1. Penal Institutions
      2. Juvenile Correctional Institutions
    B. Correctional Officials
  V. REHABILITATION
    A. Organization and Function
    B. Personnel
      1. Probation Officers
      2. Rehabilitation Co-ordinators
    C. Volunteers and the Voluntary Sector
      1. Volunteer Probation Officers
      2. Juridical Persons for Offenders Rehabilitation Services
      3. Others
CHAPTER 2
THE CRIME SITUATION IN JAPAN (PDF: 534KB)     
  I. PENAL CODE OFFENCES
    A. Trends in Penal Code Offences
    B. Trends in Some Major Crimes
  II. SPECIAL LAW OFFENCES
CHAPTER 3
CRIMINAL JUSTICE FLOW CHART (PDF: 542KB)     
CHAPTER 4
PRE-TRIAL CRIMINAL PROCEDURE (PDF: 585KB)     
  I. INTRODUCTION
  II. CONSTITUTIONAL SAFEGUARDS
  III. INVESTIGATIVE AGENCIES
  IV. INVESTIGATION PROCESS
    A. Overview
    B. Arrest
    C. Post-Arrest Procedure
    D. Collection of Evidence
      1. Taking Statements
      2. Interrogation of Suspects
      3. Searches and Seizures
    E. The Right to Counsel
    F. Bail
  V. DISPOSITION OF CASES
    A. Monopolization of Prosecution
      1. Principle
      2. Exception
    B. Forms of Prosecution
      1. Formal Prosecution (Indictment)
      2. Summary Prosecution (Request for a Summary Order)
    C. Non-prosecution of Cases
      1. No Offence Committed
      2. Insufficiency of Evidence
      3. Suspension of Prosecution
    D. Safeguards against Arbitrary Disposition
      1. Internal Administrative Review
      2. Committee for Inquest of Prosecution
      3. Quasi-Prosecution
    E. Victim Notification Programme
CHAPTER 5
TRIAL PROCESS (PDF: 617KB)     
  I. SOME BASIC PRINCIPLES AND CHARACTERISTICS
    A. Presumption of Innocence
    B. Public Trials
    C. Right to Remain Silent
    D. Right to Counsel
    E. Adversarial Procedure
    F. No Arraignment
    G. Single Stage Procedure
  II. Saiban-In Trials
  III. TRIAL PROCEEDINGS
    A. Procedure before Trial
      1. Introduction
      2. Disclosure
      3. Pretrial Conference Procedure
    B. Trial
      1. Opening Proceeding
      2. Examination of Evidence
      3. Questioning of Defendants
      4. Closing Arguments
    C. Rules of Evidence
      1. Hearsay Rule
      2. Hearsay Exceptions
      3. Confessions
      4. Exclusionary Rule
    D. Adjudication and Sentencing
    E. Length of Trial
  IV. APPEALS
    A. Koso Appeals
    B. Jokoku Appeals
  V. EXTRAORDINARY REMEDIES
  VI. PUNISHMENTN
    A. Categories
      1. Overview
      2. Death Penalty
      3. Imprisonment
      4. Fine, Misdemeanour Imprisonment without Work, Petty Fine
    B. Suspension of Execution of Sentence
    C. Outcomes of Court Proceedings
      1. Formal Trials
      2. Summary Proceedings
    D. Parole
  VII. COMPENSATION FOR INNOCENCE
  VIII. SPECIAL PROCEDURES FOR JUVENILE CASES
CHAPTER 6
CORRECTIONAL SERVICE (PDF: 684KB)     
  I. INTRODUCTION
  II. EFFECTIVE TREATMENT OF INMATES IN PENAL INSTITUTIONS
    A. Trends in the Inmate Population in Penal Institutions
    B. Philosophy of the Treatment of Inmates
    C. Correctional Treatment of Sentenced Inmates
      1. Assessment for Treatment
      2. Prison Work
      3. Guidance for Reform
      4. Guidance in School Courses
    D. Complaints Mechanism
      1. Claim for Review and Reclaim for Review
      2. Report of Cases
      3. Filing of Complaints
    E. Penal Institution Visiting Committee
  III. EFFECTIVE TREATMENT OF JUVENILES IN JUVENILE TRAINING SCHOOLS
    A. Overview
      1. Structure of Juvenile Training Schools
      2. Outline of the Treatment Process
    B. Correctional Education
      1. Living Guidance
      2. Vocational Guidance
      3. Academic Education
      4. Health and Physical Education
      5. Special Activities
    C. Medical Care
CHAPTER 7
REHABILITATION OF OFFENDERS (PDF: 625KB)     
  I. PROBATION AND PAROLE
    A. Overview
      1. Juvenile Probationers
      2. Juvenile Parolees
      3. Adult Parolees
      4. Adult Probationers
    B. Parole Procedure
      1. Parole Examination
      2. Parole Decision
      3. Pre-parole Inquiry by Probation Officers
    C. Probation and Parole Conditions
      1. General Conditions
      2. Special Conditions
      3. Life and Conduct Guidelines
    D. Implementation of Probation and Parole
      1. General Framework
      2. Intake Interviews and Treatment Plans
      3. Role of Probation Officers and Volunteer Probation Officers
      4. Day Offices
      5. Progressive Treatment
      6. Categorized Treatment
      7. Treatment Programmes as Special Probation Conditions
      8. Short -Term Programmes for Juvenile Probationers
      9. Comprehensive Job Assistance Scheme
      10. National Centre for Offenders Rehabilitation Project
    E. Termination of Probation and Parole
      1. Measures for Good Conduct
      2. Measures against Bad Conduct
    F. Outcome of Probation and Parole
  II. AFTERCARE OF DISCHARGED OFFENDERS
  III. PARDONS
  IV. MEASURES FOR CRIME VICTIMS
  V. MEDICAL HEALTH SUPERVISION
  VI. CRIME PREVENTION ACTIVITIES
APPENDICES (PDF: 476KB)
      Appendix 1 Number of known cases, crime rate, number of cleared cases, clearance rate, and number of offenders cleared of Penal Code offences (1946-2009)
      Appendix 2 Number of known cases, number of cleared cases, and number of offenders cleared of Penal Code offences, by type of major offence (1998-2009)
      Appendix 3 Average daily number of inmates of penal institutions (1950-2009)
      Appendix 4 Frequency of imprisonment of newly admitted inmates, by type of offence (2009)
      Appendix 5 Number of parole applications, grants, and rejections (1949-2009)
      Appendix 6 Number of newly received probationers and parolees (1949-2009)



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